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Zionist Movement. 




Editor of 

"Zionist Work in T^alestine.' 

"Published on behalf of the 


W- Speaight & Sons, Fetter Lane, London. 




I. — Aims and Aspirations 5 

II. — History and Organisation 11 

III. — Zionism and Young Turkey 23 

IV. — Colonising Work in Palestine . • . • 26 

AH inquiries re'ating to the Zionist Movement should be addressed to 
tVie Secretary. Ziom<t Central Office, P. Sachsisclie Strasse, Berlin, 
\i/. 15, from whom they will receive prompt acknowledgment. 



Although there is now quite a voluminous litera- 
ture upon tlie Zionist movement, there is no need to 
apologise for a further contribution on the subject. 
Parliamentary debates and newspaper articles in 
various countries show that the aims and aspirations 
of the movement are still misunderstood and misrepre- 
sented, and this lack of appreciation is prevalent even 
in Jewish circles. The present pamphlet is issued, 
therefore, in the hope of disseminating a better know- 
ledge of the Jewish national ideal, and of securing 
wider sympathy and support in its favour. It has also 
been prompted by the necessity of providing a concise 
history in popular form of the Zionist movement from 
its early beginnings to the present day. Young as 
Zionism is, it has already passed through a consider- 
able development both from a practical and theoretical 
point of view, and the official pamphlet, " Ten Years 
of Zionism," issued in 1907, is now out of date. The 
present publication reviews the work accomplished 
until the close of the Tenth Zionist Congress, and takes 
note of a pregnant phenomenon — the Turkish llcvolu- 
tion — which had been undreamt of five years ago. It 
is the record of a great national movement whose pro- 
gress is determined both by internal and external 
forces, and whose subsequent evolution must be fol- 
lowed with attention by all who have any interest in 
the travails of the Jewish people. 

I. C. 

Zionist Central Office, Berlin, 
March 21, 1912. 




The A'm of Zionism is the name of the move- 

Zionism, ment which aims~at~tlie 'restoration of 

Jewish .national life in Palestine. It 
is based upon the conviction that the J^ews are a 
nation, and that they can best fulhl their destiny by 
reviving their corporate life upon a national basis in 
their ancestral country. It is propounded as the only 
effe^ctiy e solution of t h e man y problems of the .J('\\islL 
peophTln the lands of their" dispersion, and is advo- 
cated as the ofily^ertain means of preserving Jewish 
.life from the forces of disintegration to which it is 
now exposed, and of sejcjiiing it s p ermanent and pro- 
gressive development. It represents the fi rst or ganised 
en dea vour of the Jewish people since it¥ banishment 
from Palestine nearly two thousand years ago to put 
an end to its alternating lot of oppressic^n, tolerance, 
or fatal drift, by securing the status and dignity of a 
nation in the land in which its national life first came 
into being. Its adherents are spread far and wide, in 
the East and the West, in the Old World and in the 
New, in the lands of unfettered liberty as in those of 
unmitigated oppression; and they are knit together in 
a democratic organisation which determines the policy 
of the movement at periodical Congresses. But whilst 
it receives an impetus from the present, it draws its 
inspiration from the past, for Zionis^ represents in 
modern form the traditional lov"ci' of Zion which 
animated the Jew throughout the centuries, the hope 
in the ingathering of Israel in the Holy Land which 
soothed the sufferings of exile. 

Hitherto the Jew had only prayed for the restora- 
tion of Zion; now he is working for it. And the zeal 
and energy with which he is working for this restora- 
tion are due not merely to traditional sentiment, but 
to a lively consciousness of the abnormal position of 
his people. 

AVhat is this position, and how will 
The Position jj^ \^q removed or improved by Zion- 
of Jewry. ism? It is different according as we 

consider the conditions in the East or tliose in the 
West, but in either case it will be found to be inimical 

to tlie conservation of Jewry. By tlie East we also 
mean certain Eastern European countries, which by 
reason of their social and political conditions have 
more kinship with the East than with the West. The 
Jews of the East consist of some seven millions, who 
live in conditions of political outlawry and economic 
distress. The Jews of the AVest consist of four to five 
millions, wlio live in lands of freedom, where they are 
cither socially ostracised or else exposed to the slow 
and subtle process of absorption. More than half of 
the Jews in the world are a prey to poverty and perse- 
cution. The rest are a prey to the less painful b\it 
equally powerful forces of assimilation. The moral 
of the situation, for those who desire the continuance 
of the Jewish people with all its specific racial 
qualities, is that the national life of the Jews must 
be restored in the land in which it was evolved, and 
in which alone it can congenially prosper. But before 
we develop this conclusion, let v;s examine in a little 
more detail the actual conditions of the Jews in the 
East and in the West. 

The Jews in Russia, Roumania, and 
In Eastern Galicia form more than half of the 

Europe. Jews in the world, and their condi- 

tions constitute the most serious factor in the Jewish 
problem. In the Russian Empire they are strictly 
confined to a Pale of Settlement, which forms less 
than a fifth of European Russia and little more than 
a twenty-fifth of the Tsar's entire dominions. Those 
who are privileged to live beyond the Pale are chiefly 
merchants of the first guild, professional men, and 
master artisans, but they form less than 6 per cent, 
of the five million Jews in the Empire. The Pale, in 
which the Jews form one-ninth of the population, 
would afi'ord sufficient scope for their economic 
activity, but even within its confines they have no 
freedom of movement. They are herded together in a 
few hundred towns, where, under the burden of ruin- 
ous competition, they make a wretched livelihood as 
petty traders and artisans. They are cut off from the 
land, which they can neither buy, rent, nor even till. 
They are shut out from the civil service, and_ are 
restricted in the adoption of the liberal professions. 
Their children may not form more than 10 per cent, of 
the pupils in the Government schools, nor more than 
5 per cent, of the students in the universities. They 
are deprived of the rights of citizenship, but they 
must discharge its duties — they must pay taxes and 

serve In the army. And merely to be able to live un- 
molested and to attend to their business without hind- 
rance, thej^ must bribe the police for protection. The 
culminating terror of their lives consists in the un- 
certainty of life itself, for at any moment they may be 
expelled from their homes on some trumpery plea, or 
a riot may break out in which they become victims 
of plunder and massacre. 

In Roumania the native Jews are treated as 
foreigners, although they have an uninterrupted his- 
tory of 1,500 years in the country, and although the 
independence of the country was recognised by the 
Treaty of Berlin upon the express condition that it 
granted civil equality to its Jewish subjects. Not 
only has Roumania violated its solemn pledge, but it 
has enacted a set of oppressive laws against the Jews 
which make a living almost impossible and life in- 
tolerable. The Jews are not allowed to own land or 
to till it as hired labourers. They have been driven 
from the rural districts into the towns, only to find 
that most of the avenues to an honest living have been 
closed to them. They are excluded from the public 
service and the learned professions, and may engage 
only in the lowest trades and handicrafts. They are 
barred from the secondary schools and universities, 
and their children will not be admitted into the public 
free schools until those of other citizens have been 
provided for, and then only after paying exorbitant 
fees. In Galicia the Jews live nominally under a con- 
stitutional Government, but the power is concentrated 
in the hands of Polish officials, who more than 
neutralise the blessings of a constitution. Harassed 
by an anti-Semitic bureaucracy, and denied the possi- 
bility of gaining a proper livelihood (as by the recent 
legislation in regard to innkeepers and pedlars), the 
Jews of Galicia find their lot tolerable only in coni- 
parison with the more miserable plight of their 
brethren in Russia and Roumania. 

Effects of The constant pressure thus exercised 

Oppression — by political persecution and economic 
Emigration. distress iipon these seven million Jews 

of Eastern Europe has set into motion a tide of emi- 
gration which flows unceasingly across Europe to find 
an outlet in a dozen different channels. The vastncss 
of this migratory movement may be easily gathered 
from the fact that within the last twenty-five years 
over one and a half million Jews have trarisplanted 
their homes from Eastern Europe, where they huvo 



"been concentrated since the Middle Ages, to the free 
lands of Western Europe and of America. ])uring the 
last few years 100,000 Jews have emigrated from the 
East to the West each year. In the two years 1905-7 
the exodus from Russia exceeded the number of exiles 
(300,000) driven out from Spain in 1492. Emigration 
might thus be iirged as the simplest solution of the 
problems in Eastern Europe. But the lands of the 
West are no longer so hospitable as in the days gone 
by. The growth of local economic troubles in England 
and the United States has provoked an agitation 
against the alien immigrants, who are charged with 
being the source and origin of all ills to which the 
working classes are exposed. The charge is utterly 
_^roundless : on the contrary, the Jewish immigrants 
have actually introduced industries of their own into 
the countries of their adoption. The anti-alien agita- 
tion, however, has proved so strong, especially as 
there is alwa3"s a political party ready to adopt the 
popular cry, " Our country for ourselves ! " that there 
is not a single country in which Jews have settled in 
considerable numbers that has not adopted measures 
of self-protection. The United States, England, 
Canada, Argentine, South Africa, and Australia, all 
demand that the immigrant shall be in good health, 
that he shall be in possession of a sum of money vary- 
ing from £4 in the case of the United States to £20 
in the case of South Africa, and that he shall give 
proof of being able to support himself by the toil of 
his hands. These regulations are administered so 
severely, and often so capriciously, by the immigra- 
\ tion officials, that they form an effective barrier to 
* the attempts of the Jewish refugee to find a home in 

the vaunted lands of liberty. Many thousands have 
been turned back from the ports of entry in Eng- 
land, America, and South Africa, after having sold up 
all their belongings to buy a passage — turned back 
hopeless and homeless. And the future affords not 
the least glimmer of hope that the situation will im- 
prove. On the one hand, there is no measurable pros- 
pect that the causes of emigration frora Eastern 
Europe will abate in force ; on the other hand, there is 
a ceaseless agitation in the United States, as in Eng- 
land, to increase the sevcritj^ of the anti-immigration 
laws. Thus is the physical, moral, and spiritual wel- 
fare of the greater half of the Jewish people im- 
perilled if no other solution of the problem can be 
found. That solution is offered by the Zionist pro- 

gramnie — it is the creatioa of a legally secured liome 

in Palestine. 

_ . If we turn to the con ditions of the 

the W^t '" ^— ^ ^^ *^® ^"^^^^^^ ^^^^■^E^ir-find that 
although they are free from physical 
persecution, they are exposed to a species of moral_ 
oppression. True, they enjoy for the most part politi- 
cal liberty and civil equality, but, with the exception 
of a few countries, they are subjected to a social hos- . 
tility which is as painful to the Western mind as ""^^^ 
bodily violence to the Jews in the East. Despite the "^ ' ' 
age of enlightenment in which we live, and the gener- 
ally accepted principle that racial or religious preju- 
dice is unworthy of an educated generation, there are 
few countries in the West — and this term includes 
America as well as Europe — vrhich are utterly free 
from the poison of Anti-Semitism. The war against 
the Jews, generally provoked by their success, is 
fought not with swords, but with pens and tongues 
that are sharper than swords. And whilst these hostile 
forces are pitted against them, the Jews nevertheless 
strive to adapt themselves to their social environment, 
and to obliterate any differences between them and the 
surrounding nation. They have espoused modern 
education with enthusiasm; they have engaged in all 
trades and industries ; they have invaded the liberal 
professions; they have made notable contributions to 
science and art, "to music and literature; they have 
entered into the civil service, and have made a mark 
in municipal and political life ; they have flocked into 
every sphere of activit,y and penetrated into every 
avenue of laudable ambition. The consequence of 
this social and intellectual struggle has been disin- 
tegrating. The process of assimilation to an Occi- 
dental environment has been injurious both to the 
domestic and communal life; it has wrought havoc 
to religious conformity; it has undermined the Jewish 
national consciousness. The Western Jew has been 
slowly and subtly seduced from. the beliefs and ideals 
of his ancestors; he has sold his birthright for a mess 
of pottage; he has received the waters of baptism; he 
has married outside the pale of his people. The dry 
rot of religious indifference and the canker of intei-- 
marriage are eating into the vitals of modern Jewry. 
Communities, indeed, are officially organised, with 
elaborate synagogues and imposing institutions; but 
behind this ecclesiastical facade the traditional faith 
for which our fathers suffered and died has but a 


flickering life in most places, wliile in many it lias 

already become extinct. What is to arrest these forces 

of corrosion, which are increasing in virulence every 


, It may, perhaps, be urged that the 

Advance of • j.- j. p • . 

. ., ^. successive contingents oi immigrants 

Assimilation. „ i^ , t^ i i xi • 

Irom Jiiastern Ji,urope who make their 

way into the Western communities may act as a check 
upon the forces of disintegration at work in their 
midst by reason of their religious orthodoxy. But, 
in the first place, the level of religious observance 
among these immigrants is no longer as high as it was 
twenty years ago : their minds have been saturated 
even in the Eastern Ghetto with modern ideas, and the 
Russian Revolution has stimulated the intellectual 
ferment. And secondly, even those who resisted these 
dissolvent forces in their native clime succumb more 
readily to the process of assimilation in the land of 
their adoption, whilst their children offer still less 
resistance. Religion is losing — if it has not already 
lost — its power in AVestern Jewry : it is gradually 
becoming a diminishing factor in its cohesion and con- 
servation. It may also be argued that outbreaks of 
Anti-Semitism are not likely to cease from off the face 
of the earth, and can always be relied upon to supply 
a periodical tonic to a lethargic community. Did not 
the Dreyfus aft'air arouse the Jewish consciousness 
from its torpor the whole world over? Did not the 
pogroms in Russia in 1905-6 evoke a magnificent 
demonstration of Jewish solidarity? But to appeal to 
the demon of destruction as the guardian of Israel is 
indeed a policy of despair and self-humiliation. It 
means that the Jewish people can only be expected 
to be roused into life b.v dwelling on the edge of a 
volcano — a position fatal not merely to mental tran- 
quillity, but also to physical security. Besides, the 
argument, if carefully analysed, is really not valid. 
In those countries in which Anti-Semitism is most 
rampant, apostasy and intermarriage are also most 
widespread. The Dreyfus affair has failed to give 
vitality to French Jewry, which is rapidly decaying. 
The Russian pogroms have had none but a disintegrat- 
ing eft'ect upon the Jews in Russia, and have become 
merely a memory to the Jews in the rest of the world. 
What is needed for the conservation of Jewry are not 
instruments of violence, but a positive force, a digni- 
fied asj)iration. a constructive ideal. That ideal is 
provided hy Zionism alone. 


Zionism — the To the suffering millions of the 

only means lands of the East, Zionism offers the 

(he Jewtlh"^ ^^ope of a land where they will be able 
National to till the soil of their forefathers in 

Destiny. peace, where they w^ill be able to live 

" every man under his vine and under his fig-tree." 
To the Jews of the AVest, Zionism offers the hope of a 
land where they will be able to live naturally and 
normally, free from any social hostility or hindrance, 
where they will be able to devote their gifts and ener- 
gies to the service of their own people. And to the 
Jews of all the world, without distinction of clime or 
class, it offers the only means whereby they can effec- 
tively secure the natural development of their national 
life and best achieve their national destiny. 


The Zionist Organisation was 
rec rsors founded at the first Zionist Congress 

in Basle, in August, 1897. But the 
Zionist idea — the Jewish longing for a return to 
Palestine — has a much more ancient history : it goes 
back to the day when the Jewish people was exiled 
from its land by the Romans. For nearly two thou- 
sand years the sentiment found expression merely in 
a religious form — in prayers and pilgrimages — whilst 
ever and again, in the gloom of the Middle Ages, it 
was fanned into flame by a false Messiah who heralded 
the return to Zion and then abandoned his deluded 
followers. Not vmtil the nineteenth century was any 
serious desire evinced to secure the translation of the 
sentiment into a reality by means of practical 
measures. In 1862, Moses Hess and Hirsch Kalischer, 
men at opposite poles of thought, the one a Socialiat, 
the other an orthodox Rabbi, raised their voices in 
(iermany in advocacy of the colonisation of Palestine 
as the only solution of the Jewish question, and twenty 
years later Leon Pinsker and Perez Smolensky, in 
Russia, again urged the resettlement of the Jewiali 
people in the Holy Land as the only way of putting 
an end to its sufferings and securing its continuance 
as a nation. The result of their advocacy was that a 
certain sympathy was aroused, and the work of agri- 
cultural colonisation in Palestine was actually begun 
in 1870. The supporters of this movement were known 


as Cliovcvei Zion (Lovers of Zion) : tlicy founded 
numerous societies in various parts of Europe, but the 
work of colonisation made little progress until they 
received the muniticent assistance of Baron Edmond 
de Eothschild. They were, it is true, animated by the 
national sentiment, but the general character of their 
activity was a blend of philanthro])y and religious 
piety, whilst the aid contributed by Western Jews was 
also prompted by charitable motives tinged with the 
racial consciousness. Not until the advent of Dr. 
Theodor Herzl, in 1896, was the Jewish national senti- 
ment propounded as an idea whose expression should 
not limit itself to the creation of scattered colonies in 
the Holy Land, but which should expand into an 
organised endeavour of the Jewish people to work for 
its national regeneration. Hitherto the national idea 
had meant that Western Jews helped Eastern Jews 
to settle in Palestine; henceforth it was to mean that 
Western Jews were to work together with their 
Eastern brethren for the restoration of Jewish national 
life in Palestine, not for a section of the people, but 
for the whole people. The religious-philanthropic 
movement became a national political movement : 
Chovevei Zionism became political Zionism. 
^ Dr, Herzl first promulgated his 

x^,, ^^ ideas in a pamphlet to which he gave 

the name of " The Jewish State." He 
set forth therein with a masterly hand the deep-seated 
evils from which the Jewish people was suffering, 
advocated the establishment of an autonomous settle- 
ment as the only worthy and effective remedy., and ovit- 
lined a plan whereby this settlement was to be brought 
into existence. His pamphlet encountered bitter 
opposition in Western Jewry, not merely on the part 
of influential laymen, the leaders and magnates of the 
organised communities, but also on the part of a large 
majority of the Rabbis. The former declared that Herzl's 
ideas were subversive of local patriotism; the latter 
preached that his scheme was a violation of the '' Mis- 
sion of Israel," and a contradiction of the Messianic 
doctrine. But the pamphlet was welcomed by all in 
whom the national consciousness had been aroused, 
though some of the Chovevei Zionists hitherto engaged 
in haphazard colonisation in Palestine at first held 
critically aloof. Between Herzl's followers and his 
opponents arose a wordy war, which often assvimed 
acute vehemence, and the entire communal life of 
Jewry, from one part of the world to another, was 


plunged into a heated discussion on the aims and 
principles of Zionism. 

Some The main objections were easily 

Objections refuted. Zionism, it was rightly 

Answered. argued, was not incompatible with 

local patriotism, since those who strove for its fulfil- 
ment could just as well discharge all their civil and 
political_ obligations, and the fulfilment itself, so far 
from being inimical to the interests of their native 
country, would benefit these by diverting the un- 
desired stream of alien immigration. Moreover, half 
of the Jews in the world were treated as outlaws and 
pariahs by their respective Governments, so that the 
taunt of lack of patriotism in their case was mere un- 
thinking irony. The religious argument, that the 
Jews must remain scattered among the nations as 
moral exemplars until the appearance of the Messiah, 
was refuted even more easily since it has no valid 
basis. So far from praying for the prolongation of 
their exile, the Jews always pray for its immediate 
termination : if they believed they must remain in 
dispersion until the Messianic era they would not 
pray, " Next year in Jerusalem ! " but at least, "Next 
century in Jerusalem ! " And, further, the attain- 
ment of the Zionist goal will in no way conflict with 
the faith in the coming of the Messiah, since the per- 
fection of mankind involved in this creed will still 
feSimn tO" be accomplished. It was also argued that 
the Jews, having been town dwellers for so many cen- 
turies, could not adapt themselves successfully to agri- 
cultural life— the basis of Palestinian industry; but 
there are thousands of Jewish farmers in liussia and 
Roumania, and hundreds of prosperous farmsteads 
have also been established during the last twenty years 
by Jewish immigrants in the Argentine, the United 
States, and Canada. As ;i final objection, it was 
argued that Palestine was not large enough to contain 
all the Jews in the world- an objection inconsistently 
advanced by the same critics who declared that very 
few Jews would migrate to the Holy Land. But 
Zionism does not demand that all the Jews in the 
world should settle in Palestine, merely that the Jews „ 
shall form their national home there, that they shall 
again have their spiritual metropolis in Jerusalem; 
and in any case it has been carefully estimated that 
the country could accommodate and maintain a popu- 
lation of throe to four millions, if the intensive system 
of cultivation is adopted. 


C-, ♦ V • » Despite the relentless and powerful 

Congress opposition, often conducted with un- 

fair means, which Dr. Herzl had to 
cncoimter, he nevertheless inspired his followers with 
sufficient enthusiasm to induce them to come together 
from all parts of the world for the purpose of delibera- 
tion. He convened a Congress in Basle on August 27, 
.1897, which was attended by 206 delegates. That 
Congress — the first Zionist Congress — was a turning 
point in Jewish history, for it represented the first 
organised endeavour of the Jewish people to work for 
its national salvation by a re-settlement in the ancestral 
land. The objects of the Congress were expounded 
in clear and forcible terms by Dr. Herzl, a man of 
majestic and magnetic mein, who owed the success of 
his appeal in part to his personal qualities as well as 
to the excellence of the cause itself. He declared that 
Zionism had united the most diverse elements in 
Jewry upon a national basis, and that it signified a 
return to Judaism even before a return to the Holy 
Land. The Zionists formed no secret league, but 
would be welded together in an organisation which 
would discuss the Jewish question in the full light of 
day, and which would endeavour to re-establish a 
home for their people in Palestine with the necessary 
guarantees. The colonising efforts that had already 
been carried on were proof of the fitness of the Jew 
for agriculture, and the realisation of their aim could 
bring nought but benefit to the Ottoman Empire. Dr. 
Herzl's exposition of the objects of the movement was 
followed and fortified by an impressive address by Dr. 
Max Nordau, who gave a review of the general situa- 
tion of the Jews, emphasising their_ economic plight 
in the East and their moral oppression inthe West, 
and contending that a remedy must be devised by the 
Congress. That remedy, after various other addresses 
had been delivered on the theoretical and practical 
aspects of the movement, was formulated in the fol- 
lowing declaration, which received the name of the 
Basle Programme: — 

Basle " The aim of Zionism is to create 

Programme. for the Jewish people a publicly legally 

secured home in Palestine. 

" In order to attain this object the Congress adopts 
the following means:- — 

" 1. The promotion of the settlement in Palestine of 
Jewish agriculturists, handicraftsmen, industrialists, 
and men following professions. 


" 2. The federation and association of entire Jewry 
hy means of local and general institutions conform- 
ably to the local laws. 

" 3. The strengthening of Jewish sentiment and 
national consciousness. 

" 4. The procuring of such Government sanctions 
as are necessary for achieving the object of Zionism." 
„ .* . This programme was adopted with 

* unanimity and enthusiasm. It formed 
the basis upon which all further activity was to be 
conducted, and it remains intact and inviolate unto 
the present day. To provide the elementary condi- 
tions necessary for aiming at its realisation the Con- 
gress created an Organisation of a world-wide char- 
acter. The Zionists in each country were to form 
local societies, which should be grouped together as 
a local Federation, and each Federation should stand 
in immediate communication with the Central Ad- 
ministration. The government of the Organisation 
was entrusted to a General Council (Greater Actions 
Committee) composed of representatives of different 
countries, and to a Central Executive (Inner Actions 
Committee), whose members all lived in Vienna, the 
residence of Dr. Herzl, who was elected as Pres ide nt. 
Every person waFWlJe regarded as a Zionist who sub- 
scribed to the Basle Programme and paid the small 
annual tax of a shekel (one shilling or its equivalent) 
to provide the Central Administration with its work- 
ing fund. The payment of the shekel conferred the 
right to vote for a delegate to Congress, which was to 
be the controlling organ of the movement, the ulti- 
mate arbiter upon all great and decisive measures to 
be undertaken in the name of the Organisation. 

The first Congress was followed by 
Propaganda. energetic propaganda in all parts of 

the world, and numerous adherents 
were won over to the Basle Programme. In almost 
every country in Europe in which Jews lived in con- 
siderable numbers, in North and South America, in 


South Africa, in Far Eastern Asia, and even in Aus- 5^ 
tralasia, societies were formed which registered tlioir ^< 

affiliation to th'i Zionist Organisation. The opposi- 

tion of the Anti-Zionists continued, but this merely 
stimulated the Jewish nationalists to redoubled 
energy. Zionism became the leading question through- 
out the Jewish world: it infused new life into the 
communal organisations, with their policy of Lais.ur 
faire and their promotion of assimilation. It came 


as a redeeming angel to-tliousands of cultured Jews 
in the West who had lost their faifli in the religion 
of their forefathers, and who were faced cither by- 
despair or by utter absorption into their ron-Jewish 
environment, for it aroused their national conscious- 
ness. It enkindled a love for Jewish literature and a-_ 
pride in Jewish _ hi'story : it caused the Hebrew lan- 
guage lo be cultivated anew as a modern speech, cap- 
able of expressing all the thoughts and ideas of the 
culfured jnind. It quickened the growth of Jewish 
dignity and self-respect; it caused Jewish thinkers to 
take a deeper and more comprehensive view of the 
Jewish question, and it attracted the attention and 
consideration of the non-Jewish world. Its aspira- 
tions were expounded in countless newspapers in 
various languages, ranging from the official organ. 
Die Welt, to periodicals in English and French, 
Hebrew and Yiddish, Russian and Polish, Italian, 
Hungarian, Roumanian. The progress of the move- 
ment may be gathered from the fact that its societies 
increased eightfold within the first year, and each 
succeeding Congress was able to record a growth of 
numbers or an extension into new and outlying 
regions, such as Fiji and Singapore, Nairobi and Fort 
■Winnipeg. All the subsequent Congresses, with the 
exception of three, also took place in Basle; the fourth 
was held in London (1900), the eighth at The Hague 
(1907), and the ninth at Hamburg (1909). \ 

Jevk'ish Propaganda alone, however, was not 

Colonial sufficient. In view of the political aim 

'^'■"s^- which Zionism had set itself, it was 

necessary to create a financial instrument to facili- 
tate this aim. Dr. Herzl conceived his task to be the 
securing of a charter from the Sultan of Turkey to 
enable the Jews to create an officially recognised settle- 
ment in Palestine. He, therefore, established a bank 
under the name of the Jewish Colonial Trust, which 
should afford him the requisite aid in his endeavour. 
The bank, registered as a Joint Stock Com- 
pany in London in 1899, is unique in the 
financial world, for its 100,000 shareholders and 
more are distributed throughout the globe. 
Despite these numbers, however, the capital of the 
bank, which was originally fixed at £2,000,000, is so 
far only £200,000. This" simple statement of fact 
is the clearest indication of the attitude of Jewish 
financiers towards the national ideal of their people. 
It also shows plainly enough why the practical realisa- 


tion of the Zionist programme lias not advanced be- 
yond the stage it has reached at present. 
Anjjio- Undaunted by this consideration, 

Pal. stine however, the directors of the bank pro- 

Ct»mpany. ceeded with their business, and in 1903 

they established an offshoot, the Anglo-Palestine Com- 
pany, in Jaffa, which subsequently opened branches in 
Jerusalem, Beyrout, Haifa and Safed. The operations 
of these banks have given a powerful impetus to com- 
mercial and industrial life in Palestine, and have con- 
tributed to the general improvement of the economic 
conditions in the country. 

Jewish Another important institution that 

National was founded was the Jewish National 

Fund. Fund, whose object is to acquire land 

in Palestine as the inalienable property of the Jewish 
people. Originally suggested at the first Congress by 
the late Professor Hermann Schapira, of Heidelberg 
University, the Jewish National Fund was established 
at the fifth Co ngress in 1901, and registered as an 
English limited liabiTTty conlpany. The cardinal 
principle of this fund is voluntary contribution, and 
hence even the smallest sums have always been gladly 
accepted. So energetically have the collecting agencies 
of the fund in various countries carried on their pro- 
paganda, that it has now accumulated a capital of 
nearly £150,000. Part of this money has been devoted 
to the purchnsR of Innd m Palestine (which has been 
put under cultivation) "and ttTlostcrin^^ ^agri-eailturc, 
part has been applied to the betterment of housing 
accommodation in the cities and the farm settlements, 
and part has been used to support institutions of 
public utility, such as schools conducted on Jewish 
national principles. The three principal methods of 
contributing to this fund — by presenting £10 for the 
inscription of an honoured name in_ tlie " Golden 
J[3ook," by subscribing Gs. for the planting of an-olive 
tree, or by simply dropping a coin into an attractive 
collecting-box— have made this fund the most popular 
institution within the Zionist organisation. 

Important and indispensable as 
Diplomatic those financial institutions were, the 

Activity. high aim which Zionism set itself also 

demanded diplomatic activity, and to this Hcrzl 
devoted himself with all the power of his peculiar 
genius. He entered into negotiations with the Turkish 
Government, he endeavoured to enlist the sympathy of 
the Great Powers, and he tried to secure material sup- 


port from Jewish financiers and wealthy charitable 
organisations. He had several interviews with the late 
Sultan (Abdul Hamid) between the years 1899 and 
1902, and received cordial assurances of goodwill. 
What he had set his heart upon was a charter for 
a recognised settlement in Palestine, but this he 
could not obtain. To what an extent the limited 
funds at his disposal prevented the realisation 
of his aim cannot be set down in precise and 
tabulated terms. But the knowledge that he was 
an honoured guest at the Sultan's Court and 
that he had already advanced so near to his goal 
without being able to reach it, throws an unpleasant 
light upon the magnates of Jewry, wTiose wealth merely 
arouses the odium of the nations against their people, 
but is seldom at the service of their people. Denied 
the support of the so-called " princes in Israel," he 
yet succeeded in gaining the ear of European 
monarchs and eliciting expressions of sj^mpathy with 
his endeavours. In 1898 he had a memorable inter- 
view with Emperor William II. of Germany on the 
road to Jerusalem. He later had an audience of 
the King of Italy, and in 1902 he unfolded his scheme 
to the late Grand Duke of Baden. Not confining his 
diplomatic activity to his ultimate political objective, 
he went to St. Petersburg to plead that the Zionists in 
Russia should not be hampered in their propaganda, 
and he obtained from the late M. Plehve a letter 
promising not only liberty of action to the local 
Zionists, but even a prospect of support in the final 
stage of Zionist endeavour. 

Sinai Gratifying as these diplomatic 

Peninsula measures were — for it was the first 

Project. time in Jewish history that a Jewish 

leader had discussed with crowned sovereigns the 
national regeneration of his people — they afforded but 
a passing joy. They yielded nothing concrete, nothing 
that could serve as a material foundation upon which 
the Jewish national home could be built. The Jew in 
the West could, indeed, wait, but the suffering of 
those in the East — in Russia and Roumania — cried out 
for instant relief. Hence, Herzl and his advisers were 
impelled to seek other means of achieving their end. 
In October, 1902, they negotiated with the British 
Government for the promise of a concession of land in 
the Sinai Peninsula, bordering upon Palestine. The 
British Government recommended the proposal to the 
Egyptian authorities, who were prepared to grant not 


only the land, but also local autonomy. Unfor- 
tunately, a Commission of Inquiry found that the sug- 
gested territory suffered from a dearth of water, and 
hence the scheme had to be abandoned. Thereupon 
the British Government offered Herzl a large tract in 
East Africa, and likewise coupled with it the promise 
of local self-government if the land were found suit- 
able, and thus was ushered in a new and momentous 
chapter in the history of the movement. 

P . , . ^ Dr. Herzl submitted the offer to the 

Project jixth Congress, which met at Basle in 

TuTy, 1903, and it was greeted with a 
mixed reception There was a unanimous apprecia- 
tion of the magnanimity of the British Governmen t — 
the first Great Power which had negotiated with the 
Jews as a nation; but the consideration of the offer 
involved a serious question of principle. The aim of 
ZionisnLwas to create a legally secured home in Pales- 
tine, and the Basle Programme knew nothing of any 
other country. How, then, could the offer of a terri- 
tory in British East Africa be considered, let alone 
accepted? A long, passionate and stormy debate 
ensued, in which the compatibility of this offer with 
Zionist aspirations was vehemently denied. Dr. 
Herzl protested that an East African colony was not 
Zion, and never could become Zion, but he urged it 
as a measure of emergency, in view of the terrible 
misery that faced the Jewish people. Ur. Max Nordau 
vindicated it as a " Nachtasyl," a night-shelter. But 
the opponents of the offer contended that Zionism was 
not philanthrop3% and that to consider the suitability 
of a tract in East Africa was a deflection from Jewish 
nationalism. The question, however, that was sub- 
mitted to the Congress was not to accept or to reject 
the offer, but simply to vote upon the sending of a 
Commission of Inquiry to the territory to ascertain 
whetlier it was suitable for a Jewish settlement. It 
was even agreed that the costs of the Commission 
should not come out of Zionist funds, though no stipu- 
lation was made as to what would be done with the 
land if it were found suitable — that is, whether its 
colonisation should be undertaken by the Zionists or 
whether it should be handed over to some Jewish 
philantliropic organisation. A majority voted in 
favour of the de8])atch of a Commission, and this was 
the signal of a renewed combat against the schemci. 
The opposition was led by the Jlussiiin -Zionists, who 
regard,ed the decision of the Congress as a surrender 


of Zionist principles, and tliey continued their agita- 
tion until, at a meeting of the Actions Committee in 
Vienna, in April, 1904, Dr. Herzl solemnly assured 
them — as he had, indeed, affirmed at the Congress 
itself — that he remained as true as ever to the Zionist 
ideal, and that he would continue his efforts unabated 
for its realisation. This declaration in Vienna was 
his last official utterance, for he was soon after seized 
with illness, which prevented any further action. On 
July 4, 1904, he passed away, at the early age of 
forty-four, struck down in the fulness of his powers, a 
martyr to his own devotion. \ In the eight brief years 
of his Zionist activity he had founded a world-wide 
organisation, roused the Jewish national consciousness 
to incomparable strength, and taught the Jewish 
people the invaluable lesson of self-help. He has 
written his name in indelible letters on the pages of 

The passing of the leader brought a feeling of calm 
— not to say of pessimism — upon the organisation, and 
the turmoil aroused by the East Africa question 
abated. The Commission had explored the land and 
found it unsuitable; hence it was expected that the 
task of the seventh Congress, which met at Basle in 
August, 1905, would be comparatively simple. _ The 
Congress put on record in dignified terms its gratitude 
to the British Government for the offer of a territory 
and its inability to accept it, it expressed the hope 
that it would obtain its good offices in any further 
important matter it might undertake, and it renewed 
and emphasized its adhesion to the Basle Programme. 
But a small though determined body of delegates 
clamoured for the acceptance of the British offer, and 
when they found their protests unavailing they 
seceded. Under the leadership of Mr. Israel Zangwill 
they created a new organisation, the Jewish Terri- 
torial Organisation (Ito), which adopted as its pro- 
gramme the establishment of a Jewish autonomous 
settlement in any part of the earth, arguing that the 
urgency of the Jewish situation did not justify the 
restriction of effort to Palestine. Hitherto, however, 
despite various attempts to find a territory, the pro- 
gramme of the •'* Ito " simply remains a pious wish. 

The settlement of the East Africa 
Colonisation question and the absence of any early 

of Palestine. ^^.Q^^^ct of fruitful negotiation with 
the Turkish Government brought home to the leading 
minds in the Zionist organisation the necessity of 


devising a practical policy, wliicli, whilst satisfying 
the general demand within the ranks for colonising 
work in Palestine, would also further the political aim 
of the movement. It was, therefore, resolved at the 
seventh Congress, whilst eschewing any petty or hap- 
hazard colonisation, to promote, the agricultural, 
industrial and intellectual life in Palestine by suitable 
and systematic measures, so as to strengthen the 
Jewish position in the country. Even in the lifetime 
of Dr. Herzl, at the sixth Congress, a Palestine Com- 
mission had already been appointed to make a 
scientific investigation into the economic resources of 
the Holy Land and to lay the foundations of a 
s.ystematic development of agriculture and industry. 
The decision of the seventh Congress was thus both a 
logical and practical sequence. It came to be realised 
more and more that the l)est argunient that the Zionists 
could advance to the Turkish Government was the 
argument of useful work already accomplished, and 
hence the Zionist Executive has steadily devoted itself 
to a programme of economic and intellectual activity 
in Palestine, which in a few years has already con- 
ferred a substantial benefit upon the country. 

. The death of Dr. Herzl involved the 

rganisa ion election of another leader. He was 
eve opm . g^^pceeded in 1905 by his friend and 
trusted lieutenant, Herr David Wolffsohn, of Cologne, 
who had hitherto been chairman of the Jewish 
Colonial Trust, and the seat of the Executive and the 
Central Office of the Organisation were accordingly 
removed from Vienna to Cologne. For the next six 
years the affairs of the organisation were conducted 
under the presidency of Herr Wolff^ohn, who devoted 
himself with zeal and energy to his difficult charge. 
The period of his administration witnessed the internal 
consolidation of the movement and the rise of a new 
regime in the Ottoman Empire. The internal develop- 
ment of the organisation produced two new federa- 
tions, constituted not on a local basis, like all previous 
federations, but on tlie basis of a partici;larist prin- 
ciple, and hence inter-territorial in their character. 
These arc the Mizrachi (Eastern), who stand for the 
maint(!nance of traditional Judaism, and the Poalei 
Zion (Zionist Workers), who have combined a Socialist 
programme with the Jewish national ideal. .The 
desire for co-operation with other great Jewish organi- 
sations was signalised by the Brussels Conference, 
which was convened by the Zionist Executive in 190G 


for the purpose of taking concerted measures on behalf 

of the Jews in Russia, and was also manifested in 

providing the " Hilfsverein der Deutschen Juden " 

with a site at Haifa for a technical college. But more 

pregnant than either of these events was the revolution 

in Turkey in July, 1909. 

_, . ^ A new period in the history of the 

, . " , organisation was opened ui) at the 
eress : Internal , ®,i r^ t • ^ ^ 11 

Chan9-e<; tenth Longress, which was held on 

^ ' August 9-15, 1911, at Basle, by the 

adoption of a revised constitution, the product of 
several years' discussion and deliberation. The most 
important provisions of this constitution aimed at im- 
proving the strength and efficiency of the administra- 
tion b3' raising the number of members of the Central 
Executive (Inner Actions Committee) and reducing 
the membership of the General Executive (Greater 
Actions Committee). From 1907 to 1911 the Central 
Executive had consisted of three members resident in 
three different cities, who met periodically for de- 
liberation. The new constitution provided that this 
body should consist of five to seven members, of 
whom the majority should live in the same citj^ so 
as to secure constancy of collaboration, whilst the 
General Executive, which formerly comprised over 
Bixty members, scattered over the globe, of whom 
several seldom or never could attend the meetings, was 
converted into a working body of twenty-five members, 
confined to Europe, who should meet every three 
months. A new body was also created under the name 
of the Central Committee, consisting of representa- 
tives of all the Federations and also of the ofiicial 
Zionist institutions, for the purpose of meeting once in 
the alternate j'ears in which no Congress is held. The 
members elected to the new Inner Actions Committee 
were Professor Otto Warburg, Dr. Arthur Hantke, 
Dr. Victor Jacobson, Dr. Schmarya Levin, and M. 
Nahum Sokolow, of whom the first-named was ap- 
pointed chairman. As a result of this election, the 
Central Office of tke organisation, together with the 
ofiicial organ. Die Welt, and the publication depart- 
ment, " Judischer Verlag," was removed from 
Cologne at the end of September, 1911._to Berlin. 

Apart from the revision of the constitution and the 
consequent change of administration, the tenth Con- 
gress was also notable for the important part played 
by the Hebrew language in the proceedings, for a 
debate upon the Jewish emigration question, and for 


the special advocacy of women's activity in the move- 
ment. In a sitting which was conducted wholly in 
Hebrew for the first time at a Zionist Congress, Herr 
Nahum Sokolow delivered a powerful address upon 
the modern revival of the ancient language, and 
uttered an appeal for the promotion of Hebrew cul- 
ture. The emigration question was dealt with by two 
reporters (Dr. N. Katzenelsohn and Dr. L. Motzkin), 
who pointed out that the migration of the Jews from 
Eastern Europe to the lands of the West, particularly 
America, has a disintegrating and denationalising 
tendency, and expressed the hope that the stream 
would be diverted in greater measure to Palestine ; and 
a resolution was adopted that in the event of a Jewish 
Emigration Congress being convened the Zionist 
organisation should be represented thereat. The posi- 
tion of woman in Jewish life and her special duties 
and capacities in regard to the advancement of Jewish 
nationalism were ably expounded by a lady speaker 
(Mile. Schach), and a resolution was passed aiming 
at the fostering of women's societies in the organisa- 
tion. A prolonged debate also took place upon the 
colonising work in Palestine, and a series of resolu- 
tions were adopted, which laid down the lines along 
which this work should be continued, particularly in 
regard to agriculture, housing accommodation, and 


Th T k* h ^^^ ^^ people in the world was the 

f, ... ,, establishment of constitutional govern- 

Constitucion. t ■ 'v \ ^ i n i 

ment in iurkey greeted with such en- 
thusiasm as \>y the Jews, and by no section of them 
was it regarded with such sympathetic interest and 
genuine goodwill as by the Zionists. The Jews had, 
indeed, enjoj'ed continued hospitality in Turkey from 
the memorable year 1492, when, driven from Spain, 
they received a ready welcome under tlie Crescent. 
But their very gratitude for the friendly asylum they 
had found animated them with a wisli to see the fruit- 
ful developm(>nt of their adopted country, and this 
they felt could only be secured under tlu; benign in- 
fluence of a constitutional rerjime. They proved their 
zeal by taking no unimportant part in the series of 
events whereby the former system of government was 

24 . 

replaced by one more in accordance with modern 
ideas of personal liberty, and it was but natural that 
they should be represented in the first Parliament that 
met in Constantinople. The change was not confined 
to the political system, but also manifested itself in 
a cordial fraternisation of the members of all creeds 
and races, and a new era of freedom and happiness 
seemed at hand. 

The Zionist Executive fully appreciated the signi- 
ficance of the change, and felt that it must ultimately 
be of advantage to their cause. They saw that what 
Young Turkey most needed was an adequate labour 
force to cultivate its large undeveloped tracts of terri- 
tory, and they believed that the Young Turks would 
appreciate the signal opportunity offered by the Zionist 
movement to supply that need. They accordingly 
took suitable steps to inform themselves at first hand 
upon every essential factor in the new condition of 
things and upon the probable course of development. 
The dissemination of the Zionist idea was furthered by 
various Jewish newspapers, which clearly explained 
that the fostering of Jewish nationalism was fully 
compatible with Ottoman patriotism, seeing that 
various nationalities in the Empire had co-operated 
fraternally to bring about constitutional government. 
The absolute compatibility of 
Zionist Loyalty ^io^ism with loyalty to the Ottoman 
eW Vre*"^" Empire was further forcibly pro- 

claimed by President Wolffsohn at the 
ninth Congress at Hamburg in December, 1909 — the 
first Congress attended by delegates from Turkey. 
Herr Wolff sohn declared that the objects of the move- 
ment would be pursued in complete harmony with the 
Ottoman Constitution and with the fullest regard for 
the laws and institutions of the Empire. There was, 
indeed, one point in Dr. Herzl's policy which had now 
become questionable, namely, the desire for a charter, 
which had now become out of place, in view of the con- 
stitutional regime, and hence Dr. Nordau, the Presi- 
dent of the Congress, declared that the charter idea had 
outlived its day. a There was, however, no need to alter 
the Basle Programme, since this made no mention of a 
charter; and as for the reference to "Government 
sanctions " which it contained, and which might have 
been interpreted as the " sanctions of Governments," it 
applied solely to the sanctions of the Ottoman Govern- 
ment. The great value of an energetic and willing 
body of immigrants for the economic development of 


the Ottoman dominions was brought home in a special 
address by a delegate from Salonika, M. Moise Cohen, 
which was received with the warmest interest. The 
confidence generally felt in an appreciation by the 
Turkish authorities of the aims of Zionism was evi- 
denced in the enthusiasm that greeted a new departure 
in the programme of Palestinian work — the decision to 
found, upon th3 proposal of Dr. Franz Oppenheimer, 
an agricultural colony upon co-operative principles. 
This enthusiasm was by no means short-lived, as the 
minimum sum fixed for starting the colony, £4,000, 
was over-subscribed by voluntary contributions within 
twelve months, without prejudice to the numerous 
other Zionist funds and institutions. 

The hope that had been entertained 
"n'Tif'k^" ^^ ^^® Zionist Executive, that their 

plans would find favourable considera- 
tion in authoritative circles in Turkey, has, unfor- 
tunately, been disturbed by the machinations of a 
malevolent group of people who have carried on a 
systematic campaign of misrepresentation against the 
movement. This band of opponents, it is strange and 
sad to say, are Turkish Jews, who, mainly through the 
medium of certain local organs, have .denounced their 
own co-religionists as traitors. They have wilfully 
distorted the ideals of Jewish nationalism, accused the 
Zionists of pursuing separatist aspirations, and even 
insinuated that the Zionist organisation is working in 
the interests of some foreign Power. Not content with 
the jargon medium, the Judajo-Spanish papers, in 
which these slanders usually first appear, their authors 
contrive to get them reprinted in the Turkish Press, 
80 as to secure for them a wider publicity and a more 
baneful effect./ Utterly-baseless as all these accusa- 
tions are, they have, nevertheless, brought about a 
feeling of confusion in the public mindT and a certain 
distrust towards a movement that is so transparently 
peaceful in its character. This effect was notably 
shown in a debate on Zionism — the very first of its 
kind-^which took place in the Turkish Parliament in 
March, 1911, on the occasion of the discussion of the 
Budget Estimates. An attack upon Zionism was made 
by an Opposition deputy, who betrayed the most 
grotesque ideas of the movement and its representa- 
tives; and the reply of the Government, whilst dissi- 
pating some of the fables that had been uttered, never- 
theless revealed a fallacious view, inasmuch as it 
represented the Zionist objective to consist in the crca- 


tion of a Jewish state ia Palestine. This view was 
immediately repudiated by Herr Wolffsohn in a news- 
paper interview (London Daily News, March 6, 1911), 
and suitable steps were subsequently taken by the 
Zionist Executive to correct the erroneous opinions 
current in Ottoman circles in regard to the real nature 
of the principles and aims of the movement. The 
Turco-Jewish traducers of Zionism, however, must 
have meanwhile learned that their attempt to arouse 
])rcjudice against a section of their community 
threatens to involve a much wider circle, and upon 
their heads, therefore, will lie the responsibility for 
any evil consequences that may arise. 


The most effective refutation of the various charges 
brought against Zionism consists in a calm review of 
the work it has already accomplished in Palestine, and 
of the practical measures which it has in contempla- 
tion for the near future. Such a review will expose 
the hollowness of the charge that Zionism is pursuing 
aims detrimental to the interests of the Ottoman 
Empire, and will show, on the contrary, what services 
it has rendered already and will continue to render to 
the welfare of rejuvenated Turkey. 

When the Zionists first began to undertake colonis- 
ing work in Palestine they were confronted by a 
serious and stupendous task. It consisted of nothing 
less than the adaptation of an Eastern land that had 
been neglected for centuries as the home for an indus- 
trious and highly civilised people that had long been 
nurtured amid Western, or semi-Western, conditions. 
The indolent spirit of the East, however welcome to 
the pious pilgrim or to the greybeard come to die on 
sacred soil, seemed to diffuse its torpid influence 
throughout the counstry. Industry pursued a slow and 
somnolent course, because in this undeveloped agricul- 
tural region there was lacking the economic stimulus 
of credit. There was, indeed, a certain system of 
credit in vogue, but it was not calculated to encourage 
enterprise or to quicken a sense of responsibility. A 
rich landowner would lend money to a struggling 
farmer at usurious interest without any security, and 
in default of repayment he would seize some of the 
debtor's cattle, with the help of hired soldiers. Even 
if this dramatic development were unnecessary, the 


rate of interest tliat liad to be paid scarcely permitted 
the farmer or tradesman to make any progress in tlieir 
respective callings. Not until the Anglo-Palestine 
Company was established by the Zionist Organisation 
in 1903 was a radical change brought about in this 

Zionist Banks. . .^^^^ Zionist Bank was the first to 
introduce iiiuropean conceptions of 
credit into the Holy Land, thus conferring a boon 
upon all classes of society and all grades of industry. 
It undertook to grant loans for short periods at 
moderate interest to merchants and manufacturers of 
recognised solvency, and loans for longer periods to 
farmers and building societies, the repayment of 
which was guaranteed respectively by the harvest or 
rent. It also promoted the formation of co-operative 
loan societies among the artisans, small traders, and 
agricultural workers, a movement that is now repre- 
sented by about thirty societies, with 1,200 members 
enjoying the credit of nearly half a million francs. 
Starting with a capital of only 215,000 francs, the 
Anglo-Palestine Company has now at its disposal 
nearly £100,000, and the confidence which it enjoys 
is evidenced by its deposits, which amount to about 
£200,000. It has branches in Jerusalem, Jaffa, Haifa, 
Hebron, and Safed, and even as far as Beyrout, and 
its operations have been so successful, considering the 
peculiar field of its activity, that in the last three 
years it has declared a dividend of 4 per cent. Indeed, 
the remarkable influence that it has exercised upon 
commercial conditions may perhaps best be gathered 
from the fact that, in the opinion of a director of the 
Imperial Ottoman Bank, the doubling of tlife exports 
and imports of Palestine, which has taken place in the 
last five years, is due to the activity of the Anglo- 
Palestine Company. Moreover, a kindred institution, 
the Anglo-Levantine Banking Company, in Constan- 
tinople, founded towards the end of 1908, is also 
proving a successful venture, and yielded a dividend 
of 7| per cent, on the operations of the first fifteen 
months. The benefits conferred by the branches of 
the Anglo-Palestine Company upon the business life 
of Palestine and Syria are by no means confined to 
Jewish circles, for Moslems and Christians are also 
among their clients, and the success they have alr(>a(ly 
achieved within the few years of their existence affords 
a gratifying prospect of more extensive usefulness in 
the near future. 


Bezalel School ^°* , ^^^Z ^^^ Zionism given a 

of Arts and general stimulus to the social and 

Crafts. economic life of Palestine, l3ut it lias 

also taken a direct interest in the pro- 
motion of manufacturing and agricultural industries, 
in the improvement of housing accommodation, and in 
the advancement of education. It has brought into 
being an institution for applied arts and crafts, the 
Bezalel in Jerusalem, which points a way to the solu- 
tion of the problem of poverty in the Holy City. It 
has departments for carpet-weaving, basket-making, 
filigree ornaments, lace manufacture, carpentry, 
Damascus metal work, and copper work, all under the 
supervision of expert craftsmen, and there have lately 
been added other departments for metal-chasing and 

Starting from very humble beginnings, when the 
workmen had to be taught their respective crafts, the 
Bezalel now employs over 450 people, and the quality 
of its products may be appreciated from the fact that 
their sale increased from 20,000 francs in 1908 to 
133,000 francs in 1911. Indeed, its carpets have lately 
undergone such an improvement that European con- 
noisseurs declare they will soon be able to vie with the 
famous carpets of Turkey and Persia. The Bezalel has 
also acted as a pioneer in establishing a domestic 
industry in the open country. It has settled a group 
of Yemenites at Ben Schamen, near Lydda, who have 
been provided with cottages, gardens, and a workshop, 
and who, while mainly engaged in filigree work and 
carpet-weaving, will also be able to devote some time 
to market gardening and poultry rearing. Thus has 
the Bezalel indicated the way in which the problem of 
the growing congestion of Jerusalem, with all its 
social and sanitary evils, can be solved in a manner 
that will benefit both the people and the country. The 
industrial colony of Ben Schamen is but the fore- 
runner of many others, which will gradually draw 
away the poor, unproductive elements from the cities 
into the country, and convert them into a productive 
and self-supporting class. 

A practical spirit has also guided 
Agrarian Zionist plans in the field of agricul- 

Problcms. t-aral industry. The agrarian problem 

in Palestine is two-fold : most of the land is in the 
hands of large landowners, who prefer the intensive 
system of cultivation, and whose labourers have no 
personal interest in the amount of their output; and, 


secondly, the methods of cultivation are still largely 
of a primitive nature. What Palestine needs is a body 
of healthy and willing immigrants, who should take a 
personal pride in the tilling of the soil, and who 
should employ modern methods of cultivation. Un- 
fortunately, would-be settlers who wisli to purchase a 
piece of land for farming purposes are generally 
frightened away because the plots for sale are too large 
for their requirements, and the legal formalities con- 
nected with the transfer would involve a considerable 
loss of time. 

It was to remove these drawbacks that the Palestine 
Land Development Company was created under the 
auspices of the Zionist organisation. This company 
acquires large tracts, prepares them for cultivation, 
and divides them into small holdings suitable for 
farmers of moderate means, whilst it also constructs 
ways of communication and provides a water supply. 
For persons of even more moderate means a scheme of 
settlement has been devised that will secure the 
greatest amount of labour out of the individual and 
give him a material interest in the success of his 
efforts. This scheme consists of an agricultural colony 
on a co-operative basis, which has already succeeded 
on a small scale at Dagania (formerly called 
Umdjuni), on the shore of the Sea of Tiberias, and 
which is now being tried on a more ambitious scale at 
Merchabia (near Nazareth) by the " Erez Israel " 
Colonisation Association, in accordance with the prin- 
ciples laid down by Dr. Franz Oppcnheimer. About a 
hundred labourers are employed in both centres. 

Apart from these modern methods of 
Afforestation. providing a competent labour force for 
the cultivation of the soil, Zionism is also helping in 
the needful afforestation of Palestine. It has raised a 
special fund amounting at present to £17,000 (and 
steadily increasing) for this purpose, which is to be 
carried out by the plantation of olive groves in various 
parts of the land. Nor has Zionist effort stopped at 
these individual agricultural projects, but it also gave 
the first impetus to the establishment of the Agricul- 
tural Experiment Station at Haifa, and carried out the 
preliminary stages concerned therewith. The work of 
this Experiment Station will bo to make a thorough 
scientific investigation of the botanical and agricul- 
tural resources of Palestine and of all local methods 
and practices of cultivation, with a view of suggesting 
how these resources can be exploited most profitably 


and how obsolete methods can be replaced by modern 
ones. It will provide a finishing training for young- 
farmers, it will send trained teachers to lecture on 
natural history and agriculture at rural schools, it will 
issue popular leaflets on the use of the latest imple- 
ments and machines, and on the best methods of pre- 
paring for harvest, and, what is most important, it 
may make the discovery of a new culture which 
will utterly transform the economic complexion of the 
country. Needless to say, the activity of this Experi- 
ment Station, the only one of its kind in Palestine, 
will benefit not any single class or denomination, but 
the entire agricultural industry of the land. 

Another important sphere in which 

„^., . Zionist initiative has distinguished 

itself is that of housing accommoda- 
tion. Mainly through the agency of the Jewish 
National Fund, modern quarters have been erected in 
Jaffa and Haifa, which are equipped with every com- 
fort and hygienic requirements, and which are in 
striking contrast to the miserable, unhealthy dwellings 
they are intended to replace. The erection of modern 
houses is but the first stage in the hygienic programme 
of the Zionists. They contemplate the 
„ . establishment in the near future of a 

^ * Hygienic Institute, which will devote 

itself to the suppression and prevention of contagious 
diseases, which will enlighten the people on the most 
important hygienic questions by means of popular 
leaflets, and which will also act as an advisory centre 
to the Government and municipal authorities in regard 
to all problems of sanitation. The increasing danger 
of plague infection, not merely to Palestine, but also 
to Europe, which is likely to result from the new rail- 
way connections with South Arabia on the one side, 
and Constantinople on the other, is alone sufficient to 
indicate the necessity of the proposed institute. 

In the sphere of education in Pales- 
Fd^ ^T* *^^® *^® activity of the Zionist organi- 

sation has hitherto not been very con- 
siderable, but it can point to an up-to-date higher 
grade school (Hebrew Gymnasium) in Jaffa, where two 
hundred pupils receive efficient instruction in modern 
subjects, and are prepared for a University course. A 
number of pupils intend proceeding to the Military. 
Academy at Constantinople, where they may duly 
qualify for a commission in the Armj^. Zionists, 
moreover, have provided a site at Haifa for a Technical 


College, which, will train native students in the various 
departments of applied science, and thus render the 
Ottoman Empire less dependent upon the engineers and 
electricians of Europe. They have also put together 
the nucleus of a Natural History Museum in Jeru- 
salem, in which the most interesting and representative 
specimens of the flora and fauna of the country are 
exhibited; artd the latest result of Zionist private 
initiative is the establishment of a school of music at 

The results of Zionist activity that have thus been 
outlined have all been accomplished within the last 
seven years, and most of them within the last three or 
four. They have contributed in an appreciable, if not 
a considerable, measure to the improvement of the 
economic conditions of the country, and they have 
indicated the way in which further improvements may 
be expected and achieved in increasing degree in the 
future. They show that Zionist endeavours have 
modernised and quickened commercial life, stimulated 
industrial crafts, introduced rational reforms in agri- 
cultural colonisation, improved the conditions of 
housing and sanitation, and contributed to the 
advancement of education and science. They prove 
that Zionist activity aims at rendering the soil more 
fertile, the cities more habitable, the people more 
healthy and productive, and the country more flourish- 
ing. Whether such activity can be harmful to the 
interests of the Ottoman Empire is a question that can 
only suggest itself to those who have these interests 
less at heart than the gratification of their own 


The activity of Zionism is not confined to the 
economic and intellectual development of Palestine. 
That is, indeed, its principal task — the work to which 
the greater part of its energy and its funds is devoted ; 
and in proportion as this work is advanced so much 
the nearer is the movement brought to its appointed 
goal. But this work represents only one aspect of 
Zionist activity; another consists in the zealous and 
incessant propaganda which is carried on by countless 
societies throughout the world. 

Despite the fifteen years in which the Zionist 
organisation has been in existence, it cannot as yet 


count upon the active adhesion of anything but a 
minority of the Jewish people. The process of assimi- 
lation had been allowed too long a start : the disin- 
tegrating effects of a hundred years of social emancipa- 
tion cannot be arrested in a day. But the national 
idea has nevertheless made conquests in the Western 
citadels of assimilation, and its progress is particularly 
significant among the Jewish students of universities, 
from Heidelberg to Harvard, from Cambridge to 

Parallel with the work of propaganda by meetings, 
by publications, and a world-wide Press, a systematic 
activity is carried on for the promotion of Jewish 
national culture — the study of Hebrew as a living 
language, the study of Jewish history and literature, 
the popularisation of Jewish music, the development 
of Jewish art, the cultivation of a Jewish spirit in 
every sphere of thought and endeavovir. For simul- 
taneously with the preparation of the land for its 
people, the people must also be prepared for a renewal 
of its collective life in the land. 

Such is the road — the only road — that will save the 
Jewish people from absorption and lead it to a position 
of self-respect among the nations. 

The fate of the Jewish people lies in its own hands. 

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